Ana Isabel Spranger

As a historian I have researched the legal and clandestine emigration of Madeirans from 1835 to 1930 in connection to Madeira’s agricultural crises, population density, immobility of the land ownership system, networks of migrant recruitment, and national and international political shifts. My research includes migration towards British Guiana since 1835 for sugar-related labor, the flight of Protestant Madeirans to Trinidad, Antigua,Tobago and St.Kitts in 1846, and contracted migration to Hawaii between 1878 and 1920.